NAME='Robots'/> MY FORWARD WORK

Height measurement by use transit theodolite

 upendra kumar

Instrumental method:-
>PROCESS:- Set the theodolite at O, leveled the instrument used plate level and altitude level.   Measured the distance QR with the chain or tape. The angle of elevation A and angle of depression B also measure. Let the distance OR = D. Then use the tan formula.


h2 = D* TAN A
h3=D*TAN B


Total height of the PR : h2+h3
RL OF P= BM+h1+h2
RL OF Q= BM+h1-h2


 In the nowadays height of an object also determined by the use of TOTAL STATION, DRONE SURVEY, etc.


how to measure excavated material from mines


 Upendra Kumar

                                            INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the measurement of excavated material in the mines is a calculated quantity of excavated material. The process of excavation of the underground and opencast is different, Then the method of measurement of also different. In underground mining, the measurement of excavation is done by after the mining out the mineral, but in the open cast, the measurement work starts before the start of the mining.

                   The work should be done before starting mining.

1.In In the virgin area of the quarry construct the masonry pillars at 30 mt of the interval. All pillars will be constructed in the virgin area of the quarry where pillars are not disturbed when the mining operation is running. The pillars are so constructed that when they are joined in one direction. A series of parallel lines are formed in the general direction of the proposed face. A baseline is made on the masonry pillars. write the number on masonry pillars. Takecoordinate and also take a reduced level of every pillar. Another masonry pillars are constructed at a right angle to a series of pillars are constructed first time on the virgin area.
How- to- measure - excavated -material -from- mines
MASONRY PILLARS


 These two lines are called the reference line. which should be utilized for drawn 15 mt grid lines which is parallel to reference lines on both sides.
 Before start, the mining operation surveyor carries out an initial survey and level work on 15 mt intervals with the help of Theodolite, total station, or the auto level.
Thereafter every month survey and level carry out of the excavated area for making a new profile of the quarry.
How- to- measure -excavated- material- from- mines

If required separate volume of the strata or volume of soil take the RL before drilling and blasting started.

For stone take the RL of coal top and for coal take the RL floor of the coal seam.
How -to -measure - excavated -material- from -mines

First, calculate the total excavation volume.
Total excavation= R.L OF OGL- RL OF Coal floor
The volume of soil     = R.L of ogl- stone top.
The volume of stone = R.L of stone top- R.L of coal top.
The volume of coal = R.L of coal top - R.L of coal floor.

Plot the grid on a small scale map and write the RL of different strata of a different color and finally calculate the section-wise area on the 15 mt grid.https://www.technoupendra.com/2020/04/how-to-calculate-area-in-map.html
 Calculate the volume by trapezoidal rule or any other suitable rule or software.
  


How to measure excavated material from mines

How to measure excavated material from mines

 Upendra Kumar

                                            INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the measurement of excavated material in the mines is a calculated quantity of excavated material. The process of excavation of the underground and opencast is different, Then the method of measurement of also different. In underground mining, the measurement of excavation is done by after the mining out the mineral, but in the open cast, the measurement work starts before the start of the mining.

                   The work should be done before starting mining.

1.In In the virgin area of the quarry construct the masonry pillars at 30 mt of the interval. All pillars will be constructed in the virgin area of the quarry where pillars are not disturbed when the mining operation is running. The pillars are so constructed that when they are joined in one direction. A series of parallel lines are formed in the general direction of the proposed face. A baseline is made on the masonry pillars. write the number on masonry pillars. Takecoordinate and also take a reduced level of every pillar. Another masonry pillars are constructed at a right angle to a series of pillars are constructed first time on the virgin area.
How- to- measure - excavated -material -from- mines
MASONRY PILLARS


 These two lines are called the reference line. which should be utilized for drawn 15 mt grid lines which is parallel to reference lines on both sides.
 Before start, the mining operation surveyor carries out an initial survey and level work on 15 mt intervals with the help of Theodolite, total station, or the auto level.
Thereafter every month survey and level carry out of the excavated area for making a new profile of the quarry.
How- to- measure -excavated- material- from- mines

If required separate volume of the strata or volume of soil take the RL before drilling and blasting started.

For stone take the RL of coal top and for coal take the RL floor of the coal seam.
How -to -measure - excavated -material- from -mines

First, calculate the total excavation volume.
Total excavation= R.L OF OGL- RL OF Coal floor
The volume of soil     = R.L of ogl- stone top.
The volume of stone = R.L of stone top- R.L of coal top.
The volume of coal = R.L of coal top - R.L of coal floor.

Plot the grid on a small scale map and write the RL of different strata of a different color and finally calculate the section-wise area on the 15 mt grid.https://www.technoupendra.com/2020/04/how-to-calculate-area-in-map.html
 Calculate the volume by trapezoidal rule or any other suitable rule or software.
  


How to measure excavated material from mines

 Upendra Kumar

                                            INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the measurement of excavated material in the mines is a calculated quantity of excavated material. The process of excavation of the underground and opencast is different, Then the method of measurement of also different. In underground mining, the measurement of excavation is done by after the mining out the mineral, but in the open cast, the measurement work starts before the start of the mining.

                   The work should be done before starting mining.

1.In In the virgin area of the quarry construct the masonry pillars at 30 mt of the interval. All pillars will be constructed in the virgin area of the quarry where pillars are not disturbed when the mining operation is running. The pillars are so constructed that when they are joined in one direction. A series of parallel lines are formed in the general direction of the proposed face. A baseline is made on the masonry pillars. write the number on masonry pillars. Takecoordinate and also take a reduced level of every pillar. Another masonry pillars are constructed at a right angle to a series of pillars are constructed first time on the virgin area.
How- to- measure - excavated -material -from- mines
MASONRY PILLARS


 These two lines are called the reference line. which should be utilized for drawn 15 mt grid lines which is parallel to reference lines on both sides.
 Before start, the mining operation surveyor carries out an initial survey and level work on 15 mt intervals with the help of Theodolite, total station, or the auto level.
Thereafter every month survey and level carry out of the excavated area for making a new profile of the quarry.
How- to- measure  -excavated- material- from- mines

If required separate volume of the strata or volume of soil take the RL before drilling and blasting started.

For stone take the RL of coal top and for coal take the RL floor of the coal seam.
How -to -measure - excavated -material- from -mines

First, calculate the total excavation volume.
Total excavation= R.L OF OGL- RL OF Coal floor
The volume of soil     = R.L of ogl- stone top.
The volume of stone = R.L of stone top- R.L of coal top.
The volume of coal = R.L of coal top - R.L of coal floor.

Plot the grid on a small scale map and write the RL of different strata of a different color and finally calculate the section-wise area on the 15 mt grid.https://www.technoupendra.com/2020/04/how-to-calculate-area-in-map.html
 Calculate the volume by trapezoidal rule or any other suitable rule or software.
  

MY FORWARD WORK: SETTING OUT RIGHT ANGLE IN SURVEYING

MY FORWARD WORK: SETTING OUT RIGHT ANGLE IN SURVEYING:  Upendra Kumar Can't imagine the work of surveying without a right angle. The right angle is used in surveying in the fieldwork, area vo...

SETTING OUT RIGHT ANGLE IN SURVEYING

 Upendra Kumar

Can't imagine the work of surveying without a right angle. The right angle is used in surveying in the fieldwork, area volume calculation, and preparation of plan and section.

                                         Method of setting out  right angles  on the ground


1. SETTING RIGHT ANGLE WITH CHAIN OR TAPE
2. SETTING RIGHT ANGLES WITH INSTRUMENT


1. SETTING RIGHT ANGLE WITH CHAIN OR TAPE:- This method is based on a triangle whose sides are 3m,4m, and 5m. this type of triangle is a right-angled triangle.
SETTING- OUT- RIGHT -ANGLE -IN -SURVEYING
RIGHT ANGLE TRIANGLE 



In the above picture, AB is the chain line or baseline which is progressing A to B. Dis the point where one offset chainage is required. spread the chain or tape and measure the length CD 3m on the line AB.
Keep the zero end of the chain or tape one chainman and another chainman keep 3m mark of the chain or tape on the point D. Another chainman spreading the chain or tape to the direction of point E. Stop the spreading after got a 7m point mark in the chain or tape. Keep the 7m mark with the hand by the chainman.spreading the chain or tape until 12m mark to the direction of C by the other chainman. keep the 12m mark of the chain or tape by the first chainman. Drop the ring on point C, D, and E. Extend the line DE with the help of the ranging rods.
2. SETTING RIGHT ANGLES WITH INSTRUMENT:-
A. CROSS STAF:-The cross-staff is a simple instrument for setting the right angle.
There are three types of the cross-staff
i. Open
ii. French
iii Adjustable
i. Open cross-staff:-
SETTING- OUT- RIGHT- ANGLE- IN- SURVEYING
The open cross-staff is made of four metal arms with vertical slits. The two pairs of arms AB and CD are at the right angle to each other.  The vertical slits are used in ranging and sighting the object. The cross-staff is mounted on a wooden pole. In the ranging work, two arms are used in ranging along the chain line, and the other two arms are used in setting a right angle.

ii. French cross-staff:-
SETTING- OUT -RIGHT- ANGLE- IN -SURVEYING


A French cross-staff is an octagonal form of the cross-staff. It consists of an octagonal brass tube with slits on all eight sides. It has an octangle brass tube with slits on all eight sides. It has an alternate vertical sight slit and an opposite vertical window with a vertical fine wire on each of the four sides. these are used for setting out right angles.
ii.Adjustable Cross Staff:-
SETTING -OUT -RIGHT -ANGLE- IN -SURVEYING


It consists of a brass cylindrical tube about 8 cm in diameter and 10 cm deep and is and is divided in the center. The upper cylinder can be rotated relative to the lower one by a circular rack and pinion arrangement. It has a magnetic compass on the top for taking the bearing of a line.


B. OPTICAL SQUARE:- 
SETTING- OUT -RIGHT- ANGLE- IN -SURVEYING


An optical square is an instrument and it is also used for setting a right angle. It consists of a metal box that has a diameter of 2.5cm and depth is 1.5cm. There are two glass is fitted in the optical square which makes a 45-degree angle to each other. one glass is called horizon glass which is half silver and half unsilvered and it is fixed bottom of a metal box. The other glass is called index glass and it is completely silvered. It also fixed in a metal box.

Principle:- Principle of the optical square is based on the principle of the reflecting light properties,  the first incident ray and the last reflected ray is twice the angle between mirrors. So the angle between the horizon sight and index sight will be 90 degrees.

PROCEDURE:-The observer kept the optical square in hand and stand on the chain line where the perpendicular to be setup.The observer sight the ranging rod at position B from the unsilvered portion of the horizon glass and then the observer looks through the upper portion of the horizon glass to see the image of the object O. 
C. THEODOLITE:-Theodolite is also used for setting the right angle. In this method, the theodolite is set up on that point where the right angle is required. Make a temporary adjustment and set both verniers zero. Sight the ranging rod on along the chain line. Make a fine target ranging with the help of a lower tangent screw.   Unclamp the upper vernier screw and rotate the theodolite in clockwise and clamp the upper vernier after reach 90 degrees. Make the final set with the help of the upper vernier screw tangent. The advantage of this method sets the right angle on both sides of the chain line of a single setting of the instrument.


SETTING -OUT- RIGHT -ANGLE -IN- SURVEYING



D TOTAL STATION:- 
What-is-toatal-station
TOTAL STATION



The most accurate way to set out a right-angle is to use a total station. Position the instrument on the point along the survey line from which the right-angle is to be set out, target the endpoint of the survey line, set the horizontal circle to zero (see user manual), and turn the total station until the horizontal circle reading is90 °.
USE OF RIGHT ANGLE IN THE SURVEYING

I. Taking offset
II. Computation area and volume.
III.Griding of the map and ground
IV.Contouring, etc

HOW TO CREATE BEST MAP

 Upendra Kumar

A map is a type of illustration which shows the relationship between objects, region, and theme in the space. 

                                                   A map is the two type

 i. Small scale map:- When 1cm of the map represents a large distance is called a small scale map.
Example:- If the map shows scale.1cm =100mt then Scale= 1:10000 and it is small scale map.
WHAT- IS- A -MAP- AND -HOW- IT -IS -DRAW




ii. Large scale map:-  When 1cm of the map represents a small distance is called a large scale map.
1cm=1mt then the scale=1:100 and it is a large scale map.
WHAT- IS -A -MAP- AND- HOW- IT -IS -DRAW

Large Scale Map


Generally, a map that has RF is less than 1/500 is called a large-scale map. That map has RF more than 1/500 is called a small scale map.

MY FORWARD WORK: What is the principle and procedure of chain surve...

MY FORWARD WORK: What is the principle and procedure of chain surve...:           Upendra Kumar                                                                                   Principle of Chain Survey     WELL...

What is the principle and procedure of chain surveying

         Upendra Kumar

                               


                                                 Principle of Chain Survey    


What -is- the -principle -and -process -of -chain- surveying
WELL CONDITIONED TRIANGLE

The Principle of chain survey is TRIANGULATION. The triangles are the simple plane figure which can be easily drawn by his lengths. The angles are used in chain surveying is approximately nearly about 60 degrees or nearly equilateral triangles. In the chain surveying, the triangles used named as well-conditioned. The well-conditioned triangle consists of no angle smaller than 30º and no angle greater than 120º    
                                     

There are the following abbreviations used in chain surveying.


 
Survey stations:- Survey station is a point of importance at the beginning and end of a chain line. The survey stations are two types of Main station and subsidiary or tie station. It is expressed in a small circle with a number of numerical or alphabetical numbers. 

 
Survey line:- The line joining between survey stations is called Survey lines. It is in two types. The lines joining between main survey stations is called the main survey line or chain lines. Subsidiary or tie stations is the point on the main lines to locate the interior detail such as fences, hedges, building, etc.
It is expressed in AB, BC, or ab, bc, etc.

Baseline:- In surveying the longest of the chain line is used as a baseline. It is a build-up of the framework of the survey. It should be laid off on as level ground as possible through the centre and the length of the area. It should be correctly measured horizontally.

Check Line: -A check line is a line joining the apex of a triangle to some fixed points on any two sides of the triangle.

Tie Line:- Tie line used to tie some fixed point on the main survey lines. It is also used for dual purposes one is to check the accuracy of the survey framework and the other is to locate the interior details. 

Offsets:- To locate the surface features on the map. It is measured left or right on the survey line. There are two kinds of offsets. One is perpendicular offsets and the other is oblique offsets.
 

                                                         Selection of Station

1. Main stations should be intervisible
2. The main principle of surveying is to work whole to the part.
3. If possible, a long line should be run roughly through the centre and the whole length of the area.
4. All triangles should be well-conditioned.
5. Each triangle should be as few as practicable.
6. Tie lines used for filling details of the interior.
7. The survey lines should be so arranged as to avoid obstacle to ranging and chaining.
8. The survey lines should lie over as level ground as possible.

                              The Equipment Required For a Chain Survey
i. A Chain:-This is an accurate and common method of measuring distance in this method the distance are measured in the field by chain or tape. A metric chain divided into 100 links is made of galvanized mild steel wire 4 mm in diameter. The ends of each link are bent into loops and connected together by means of three oval rings. Which afford flexibility.
What is- the -principle- and- procedure -of- chain- surveying
ii. A Metallic Tape:- When linen tape is reinforced on brass or copper wires is called metallic tape, it is available the length of 15mt,20mt, and 30mt. It is covered in a leather box.
iii. Ranging Rod:- Rods which is used for ranging for making a line is called ranging rod. It is available in wooden and metal made, its circular diameter is 25 mm and 2 MT height.
What- is -the --principle -and -procedure- of -chain surveying



iv. An optical square:-Optical square is used for finding the foot of the perpendicular from a given point to a line and it is also used for setting out a right angle at a given point on a line.
v. A plumb Bob
vi. An offset rod
vii. A survey field book
viii. Pegs
ix. Chalk, Stout string, hammer,axe, nails,tar,etc

                               The Procedure of Chain Survey

Reconnaissance:- Before start, the chain survey field works the surveyor walk over the whole area which is to be surveyed and examine the ground for the arrangement of the framework. During the exam the surveyor to find the possibility for all areas covers the main survey lines, The triangle made well-conditioned, the shortest offset distance, intervisible all the stations. The baseline possible centre of the area. During the reconnaissance, the surveyor should prepare a neat hand sketch called a key plan. The plan showing boundaries, the principal features such as building, roads, nallas, etc. The positions of the stations and chain lines which should be lettered or numbered, and the directions in which the chain lines are to be measured by the arrowheads. The sketch is drawn in the field book.

                             Marking The Stations On The Ground

After complete, the reconnaissance and preparation of the key plan mark the station on the ground. On the ground-driven wooden pegs, pegs are normally 15 cm long, and width 2.5 cm square and pointed ends.pegs are driven on the ground and height 2.5 cm above the ground.
What- is- the -principle -and -procedure- of -chain surveying




                                          Reference Sketch

A reference sketch is made of all stations, if the pegs are removed from their own position then use the reference sketch to find the stations.
What -is- the -principle- and -procedure- of -chain surveying


                                                   Running Survey Lines
After complete priliminary work starts the chaining work. First, start the chaining of the baseline, and carried all the lines of the framework. A survey line consists of chaining the line and locating from it the nearby detail. For chaining the chain is stretched in true alignment and the arrow inserted in the ground, offsets are taken their position and booked in the field book. 
What- is- the- principle- and -procedure- of- chain surveying





ON YOUTUBE:- Upendra Kumar

what is the fundamental line of the theodolite

 Transit Theodolite

                                            

1. The verticle axis.

2.The axis of the plate level. (The plate level)

3.The line of collimation.

4.The horizontal axis (Turnion axis)

5. The axis of the altitude level. (The bubble line of altitude level)

                                      

                                            Why Necessary Permanent Adjustment



The improper and excessive use of the theodolite, the relationship between fundamental lines may be disturbed. This incorrect relationship affects on lead reading.

                                             Condition of Adjustment



A. The axes of the plate levels must be perpendicular to the vertical axis.

B. The line of collimation must be at the right angles to the horizontal axis.

C. The horizontal axis must be perpendicular to the vertical axis.

D. The axis of the telescope level or the altitude level must be parallel to the line of collimation.

E. If the transit has a fixed vertical vernier, The vertical circle vernier must be zero when the telescope level is centered. When the line of collimation is horizontal.

F. If the transit is provided with a string level must be parallel to the horizontal axis.



                                           To make the diaphragm truly erect

procedure:-Leveled the instrument carefully. sight a distant well-defined point such as the top of the spire, and with both motions clamped, rotate the telescope in azimuth by means of one of the tangent screw. If the horizontal cross-hair remains in contact with the point, the adjustment is correct. Alternatively, move the telescope through a small verticle angle. If the point travels continuously on the verticle hair, the adjustment is correct. If not, loosen the diaphragm screws and rotate the diaphragm- ring. Repeat the test and adjustment until perfect. Then carefully tighten the screws.



The permanent adjustment of the theodolite consists of the following.

a. Adjustment of the plate levels.

b. Adjustment of the line of collimation.

c. Adjustment of the horizontal axis.

d. Adjustment of the level tube of the telescope.

e. Adjustment of the verticle index frame.

For making the adjustment, the instrument should be set up at a fairly level place where sights of about 100m can be taken in either direction in the same straight line.



Procedure:-


A. The axes of the plate levels must be perpendicular to the vertical axis.:-

Set the instrument on the firm ground and firmly fixed on the ground. Make leveling of plate level bubble by the use of a pair of foot screws. Turn the plate level at 90d about the verticle axis and make bubble central by the turn of third foot screw. Now the process is a repeat until the make the bubble center in these positions. Turn the plate level through 180d about verticle axis, if the bubble position is to remain central then the axis of the bubble is perpendicular to the vertical axis. If not the adjustment is required. Now note the no.of deviation of the bubble. Adjust half total no. of deviation by the use of capstan headed nut provided just below the bubble tube. The remaining half concerned foot screw. Repeat the process until making the bubble is central.



B. The line of collimation must be at the right angles to the horizontal axis.


To make the line of collimation coincide with the optical axis of the telescope. The first adjustment is in horizontal hair and the other is vertical hair.



HORIZONTAL HAIR ADJUSTMENT




Three pegs T, A, and B are driven in the ground. Set the instrument at A and make a temporary adjustment. Take the staff reading on A and B, Let staff reading on A is Aa and B is Bb1. Transiting the theodolite and take the staff reading A and B. Let the staff reading is on B is Bb2. If the second reading is matched with the first staff reading then horizontal hair is in adjustment, If not then the adjustment required in horizontal hair. Calculate the mean value of the two staff readings. Let the mean value is Bb. Turn the vertical diaphragm screw, The horizontal hair brought to the reading Bb.



ADJUSTMENT OF VERTICLE HAIR






Set the theodolite at T to make the temporary adjustment. The ranging fixed on A and looking by the use of the telescope, Clamped the lower and upper clamp. Fixed the ranging rod at B by using the transiting telescope. The upper clamp is loosed and by turning the vernier plate the ranging rod at A is again bisected. If the ranging rod at B is seen bisected after transiting the telescope then the vertical hair is perfect.if not BB1 is a total error. Shift the vertical hair by turning the horizontal diaphragm up to bisect the ranging rod at B1.



C. The horizontal axis must be perpendicular to the vertical axis







Set the theodolite at T from a distance pole P, To make the temporary adjustment. A is a point that marks on the pole P. The telescope bisect point A, clamp the upper and lower screw, then bisect the points B on the pole. Loosen the upper clamp turn the telescope through 180d. Then bisect point A telescope lowered and bisect the point B. If not another point B' is marked on a ranging rod at R. R is fixed at the same level of B.A point is C is marked midway between BB' The point C is bisected and the upper clamp is tightened. The telescope is raised then A is not bisect this time. Adjust the turning axis raised or lower until the bisecting point A.



D. The axis of the telescope level or the altitude level must be parallel to the line of collimation





When the level or verticle angles are taken then lines of collimation must be parallel to the axis of the telescope. Drive two pegs A and B on the ground about 100 mt apart. Set the instrument at O which is midway between two pegs. Clamp the verticle circle and bring the telescope bubble exactly to the center of its run by means of the tangent screw of the verticle circle. Take the reading the staff A and B. Find the true difference of level A and B.







Set the instrument at O1 which is 10 mt from the peg A. Make the temporary adjustment, and take the staff reading on A and B. Find the difference of level of A and B. If the true difference of level agrees with first setting then the adjustment is correct, If not calculate the true difference of and adjust the bubble by the help of capstan-headed screws attaching the level tube the telescope.

What Is Arc Gis And How Prepare A Gis Map



 Arc Gis is software. In this software, georeferenced spital data is used to solve the problem regarding planning, mapping, and management.

Nowadays it is used in all branches of science and technology and engineering. It is developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri).   

Arc Gis contains four types of applications.

1.Arc Map. 2. Arc Scene.   3. Arc Globe.    4.Arc Catalog.


1. Arc Map. Arc map is used generally to add data, analyze data, georeferencing data, editing data, creating a map, and another desktop converting purposes.

What- Is -Arc- Gis -And- How- Prepare- A -Gis- Map



There are three steps to prepare a map.
A. Add data
B. Georeferencing
C.Digitalization


A. Add data:- After opening a desktop ArcMap click on the File menu drop down the pointer and kept on Add data. Many types of add data function show on the desktop. 
What -Is- Arc- Gis -And -How- Prepare- A- Gis- Map


Then click on add data in form jpeg formate. If you have any scanned map you can add it. 
What- Is - Gis- And- How -Prepare -A -Gis- Map
If you have any measurement data in the XY form of EXCEL formate you can also add it. For adding XY data go to Add Data then select on Add XY Data, after a click on Add XY Data an open an Add data dialogue box.
What- Is- Arc -Gis- And- How- Prepare- A- Gis- Map

First, fill the browse file where the measurement data kept. After filling, the browse file then specifies the filed for XYZ coordinate data. After filing the XYZ form the go-to coordinate system of input co-ordinates. Click on the edit button and filled the in which co-ordinate system from your measurement data bassed. if your coordinate system on the local grid then need not edit the co-ordinate system table.

for more information about Add data see in this video
                                 


B. Georeferencing:- After Add, the data georeferencing is required. Right-click on the image and go to the data frame properties. A data frame properties dialogue box is open. Select the coordinate system and edit the coordinate system in which coordinate system of the image from the list. Then apply and O.K. 
What- Is -Arc- Gis -And -How -Prepare -A Gis- Map

>In the georeferencing toolbar go to the Add control points. In the above picture, we are seeing one verticle and one horizontal line crossed at a point. The horizontal line shows the latitude of that point. The verticle line shows the longitude of that point. After the left click on add control points, the pointer is changed in form of +sign. Left-click on crossing point and then right-click and input the longitude and latitude value of the upper left corner of the map. Go on all the crossing points with the same process. Georeferenced the map. In the last crossing point, you will see some difference between the georeferenced point and the actual point this the error of georeferencing. To view the link table in the georeferencing toolbar and save the error of georeferencing. Expand the georeferencing toolbar and then click on rectify. Save your image where you want, and then click on update georeferencing.
                                  

C.Digitalization:-After the georefrence of image digitalization is require. Go to catlog and create a new folder . Right click on the new folder and go to new and then shape file. left click on the shape file a create new shape file dialogue box open. 

                                               
What -Is -Arc- Gis- And -How -Prepare -A -Gis -Map
Fill up the requirement in dialogue box, then stat the editing.click on create feature and then in construction tool. after complete editing stop the editing and save .
For add attribute table see this video.
                                 

भौगोलिक सूचना प्रणाली(G.I.S) क्या है?

उपेंद्र कुमार



भौगोलिक- सूचना -प्रणाली(G.I.S) -क्या है?

भौगोलिक सूचना प्रणाली में डेटा को ढांचा के रूप में एकत्रीकरण ,प्रबंधन एबं विश्लेषण किया जाता है| भूगोल बिज्ञान में G.I.S बहुत तरह के डेटा को जोड़ता है| यह स्थानिक स्थान का विश्लेषण  एबं नक्शे और 3 डी दृश्यों का उपयोग करके विज़ुअलाइज़ेशन में जानकारी एबं परतों(LAYERS)  के रूप मेंव्यवस्थित करता है| G.IS  के इसी गुण के कारन उपयोगकर्ता को एक ठीक निर्णय लेने में सहायता करता है| 

मुख्यतः चार तरह के डेटा G.I.S में प्रयोग किया जाता है

1.डिजिटाइज़ और स्कैन किया गया डेटा |



भौगोलिक- सूचना -प्रणाली (G.I.S)- क्या -है?

2.डेटाबेस


भौगोलिक- सूचना -प्रणाली (G.IS)-क्या है?


3.जीपीएस फील्ड डेटा




भौगोलिक- सूचना- प्रणाली -क्या है?





4.रिमोट सेंसिंग और एरियल फोटोग्राफी


भौगोलिक- सूचना- प्रणाली(G.I.S) -क्या- है?



                  

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मुख्यतः G.I.S डेटा को दो तरह से संग्रहीत किया जाता है-
i.वेक्टर स्थानिक डेटा के  रूप में |

वेक्टर एक डेटा संरचना है, जिसका उपयोग स्थानिक डेटा को संग्रहीत करने के लिए किया जाता है। वेक्टर डेटा लाइनों या आर्क से मिलकर बनता है,
शुरुआत और अंत बिंदुओं द्वारा परिभाषित, जो नोड्स पर मिलते हैं। इन नोड्स के स्थान और
टोपोलॉजिकल संरचना आमतौर पर स्पष्ट रूप से संग्रहीत होती है। विशेषताएं को उनकी सीमाओं से ही परिभाषित किया जाता है|



भौगोलिक -सूचना -प्रणाली(G.I.S)- क्या -है?


ii. रैस्टर स्थानिक डेटा के  रूप में :- रैस्टर स्थानिक डेटा भंडारण, प्रसंस्करण और प्रदर्शन के लिए एक विधि है।
ये पंक्तियाँ और स्तंभ में विभाजित होते  है | जो एक नियमित ग्रिड संरचना बनाते हैं। प्रत्येक कोशिका आकार में आयताकार होनी चाहिए, लेकिनजरूरी नहीं कि वर्गाकार हो।इस मैट्रिक्स के भीतर प्रत्येक सेल में स्थान के साथ-साथ निर्देशांक भी होते हैं | मैट्रिक्स, एक वेक्टर संरचना के विपरीत जो टोपोलॉजी को स्पष्ट रूप से संग्रहीत करता है। समान विशेषता वाले क्षेत्र मूल्य को इस तरह से पहचाना जाता है, हालांकि, रेखापुंज संरचनाएं इस तरह की सीमाओं की पहचान नहीं कर सकती हैं
भौगोलिक- सूचना -प्रणाली(G.I.S) -क्या है?

G.I.Sका उपयोग निम्नलिखित छेत्रों में किया जाता है

A:सार्वजनिक निर्माण और उपयोगिताओं, ट्रैकिंग जल और तूफान जल निकासी, विद्युत संपत्ति, इंजीनियरिंग परियोजनाएं, और सार्वजनिक परिवहन संपत्ति और रुझान।
B:पर्यावरण:  G.I.S का उपयोग पर्यावरण के लिए किया  जाता है। उदाहरण के लिए, संरक्षणवादी जलवायु परिवर्तन, भूजल अध्ययन और प्रभाव आकलन के लिए जीआईएस का उपयोग करते हैं।
C: G.I.S का उपयोग  सैन्य और रक्षा के छेत्र में किया जाता है वे इसका उपयोग स्थान खुफिया, रसद प्रबंधन और जासूसी उपग्रहों के लिए करते हैं।
D: G.I.S का उपयोग कृषि  में किया जाता है किसान इसका उपयोग सटीक खेती, मृदा मानचित्रण और फसल उत्पादकता के लिए करते हैं।
E:वानिकी: वनपाल जीआईएस के साथ लकड़ी, ट्रैक वनों की कटाई और इन्वेंट्री फॉरेस्ट का प्रबंधन करते हैं।
F:व्यापार: चीजों के व्यावसायिक पक्ष पर अधिक, जीआईएस साइट चयन, उपभोक्ता प्रोफाइलिंग और ग्राहक पूर्वेक्षण के लिए है।
G.:वास्तविक स्थिति: अचल संपत्ति के उदाहरणों में बाजार विश्लेषण, घर का मूल्यांकन और ज़ोनिंग शामिल हैं।
वास्तविक स्थिति: अचल संपत्ति के उदाहरणों में बाजार विश्लेषण, घर का मूल्यांकन और ज़ोनिंग शामिल हैं।
H:सार्वजनिक सुरक्षा: जीआईएस बीमारी, आपदा प्रतिक्रिया और सार्वजनिक स्वास्थ्य के प्रसार को दर्शाता है|
I:फाइबर नेटवर्क प्रबंधन के लिए इंटरडैप्डेक्टोरल नेटवर्क संपत्ति के छेत्र में किया जाता है|



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WHAT IS IMPORTANCE OF G.P.S APP IN DAILY LIFE

                                          WHAT IS G.P.S 

The Global Positioning System is satellite-based navigation and surveying system to determine precise position and time. 

See also:- What Is The Gps Survey And  used in mine surveying


                                        WHAT IS AN APP

The app is an application that is especially downloaded by a user to a  device.

WHAT- IS- IMPORTANCE -OF -G.P.S- APP -IN -DAILY LIFE


From the above, these two definitions understood that the G.P.S app is used for navigation, position, location,  surveying, and mapping purposes.

Importance of the G.P.S app in daily life used as a navigator, location, and position finder. These finding data is used in personal, commercial, social, and technical purposes. 

There are generally two types of  G.P.S app, one is installed in a mobile phone and the other is installed in the computer for precise work. The computer G.P.S app is used in different industries. The  G.P.S app is used in daily life for information about the operation, safety, security, social, and many more areas.

The following areas using the G.P.S app.

1. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:- The use of G.P.S in the science and technology field for collecting data and information purposes. Like as Biology, Geology, Geography, etc.

2. SURVEYING AND MAPPING;- The use of the G.P.S app in surveying for locating boundary, traversing, triangulation, contouring, excavation measurement, and digitalization of map and many more. The G.P.S gives more accurate data fewer labors and fast work. The data obtained by G.P.S to prepare maps and modeling of maps on TheG.I.S platform.

3. TRANSPORT;- The G.P.S is used in aviation for navigation and operation purposes, In marine, it is also used for navigation purposes, In the surface transport, it is also used for the location of vehicles, traffic, fuel, and safety management.

4.TIME:- The companies use the G.P.S app to maintain records of business transactions and traceability. Major financial institutions use G.P.S to obtain precise time for setting internal clocks used to create financial transaction time stamps. 

5. AGRICULTURE:- The use of G.P.S in agriculture in farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidelines, crop scouting, variable rate applications, guidelines for weather for work and farming.

6. ENVIRONMENT;- The G.P.S is also used to study of the environment like forest, sea, animals, etc.

7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT:- It is also used in disaster relief for finding the exact location.





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