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FUNDAMENTAL OF VOLUME MEASUREMENT IN OPENCAST MINE

FUNDAMENTAL OF VOLUME MEASUREMENT IN OPENCAST MINE




Upendra Kumar



The purpose of volume measurement in opencast mine is a calculated quantity of excavated material. opencast mine is taken before mining operation following work should be done for volumetric
survey.


1. Masonry pillars are constructed at 30 mt of interval.

2. All pillars will be constructed in the virgin area of the quarry where pillars are not disturbed when
mining
    operation is running. The pillars are so constructed that when they are joined in one direction.
   A series of parallel lines are formed in the general direction of the proposed face.

3. A baseline is made on the masonry pillars. write the number on masonry pillars.
    Take co-ordinates and also take a reduced level of every pillar.
4. Another masonry pillars are constructed at a right angle to a series of pillars are constructed first
   time on the virgin area

FUNDAMENTAL- OF- VOLUME -MEASUREMENT- IN OPENCAST MINE



5. These two lines are called the reference line. which should be utilized for drawn 15 mt grid lines
    which is parallel to reference lines on both sides.


6. Before start, the mining operation surveyor carry out an initial survey and level work on 15 mt
      interval with the help of the total station or auto level.

 7. After completed the survey and level work the initial profile of the quarry is completed.

8. Thereafter every month survey and level carry out of the excavated area for making a new profile of the quarry.



9. If the surface of the ground has large undulation then the interval of the grid may be reduced from 15 mt.

10. When the coal seam is exposed to the level of the top of the seam will be taken before the coal extraction.
     
      The levels of the floor of the coal seam will be also taken after coal extracted.

The above method takes more manpower and more time to give the final result. Nowadays the following method of used for volume measurement of open cast mines.

A. TOTAL STATION
B.AUTOMATIC LASER SCANNERS
C.RTK GPS
D.AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY OR DRONE SURVEY.

                                                      TOTAL STATION
One of the advantages of the total station is given the reading in 3-dimensional digital form and the reading is also stored in its memory. The method of measurement volume with total station is generally two types.
b. Rendome reading taken method.
The use of these two methods takes the measurement before the start mining operation and also takes the measurement intervals of operating mining. 
FUNDAMENTAL OF VOLUME- MEASUREMENT- IN -OPENCAST- MINE
TOTAL STATION


                                              AUTOMATIC LASER SCANNERS


The use of automatic laser 3d scanners measure the exact shape of the mine in-form x,y, and z co-ordinates system. The three types of methods used in measuring opencast mining( i)Satellite( ii) Ariel 
(iii ) Tessterial from laser 3d scanners.


                                
FUNDAMENTAL OF VOLUME -MEASUREMENT- IN- OPENCAST MINE
3d laser scanners

RTK GPS:-The volume is also measured with the RTK GPS, The readings are taken in the two steps with the GPS. The first step is reading taken before the mining start and the second step reading in the interval operation. The use of  RTK GPS reduced the cost, energy, and time.


AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY OR DRONE SURVEY:-The volume of opencast mine also measured with the use of aerial photography or drone

 

LAST UPTODATE:-24.01.2021

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