# Measurement Of Different strata of excavation.

The earth is made of four layers.

1. CRUST:-The crust is the outer layer of the earth and it contains solid rocks.
2. MANTLE:-The mantle layer situated below the earth and contain rich solid rocks.
3. OUTER CORE:- The outer core is made of liquid.
4. INNER CORE:- The inner core is made of solid.

In mining, excavation requires a separate volume of different strata, like soil, stone, coal, band.
For this purpose first, measure or take a reduced level of original ground levels before the mining operation start.
The mining operation is running Cary the survey work before drilling and blasting.
After drilling, blasting, and material removed from the face. Then exposed coal top face carry the survey and leveling work on coal top face.
After removing the coal then complete the survey and leveling work of the coal floor.
First, calculate the total excavation volume.
Total excavation= R.L OF OGL- RL OF Coal floor
The volume of soil     = R.L of ogl- stone top.
The volume of stone = R.L of stone top- R.L of coal top.

The volume of coal = R.L of coal top - R.L of coal floor.
If the band included up to 1mt in coal seam deduct the % of volume in coal

SEE ALSHO:-FUNDAMENTAL OF VOLUME MEASUREMENT IN OPENCAST MINE