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What Is The Gps Survey And used in mine surveying

What is GPS and used in mining

Upendra Kumar

What is G.P.S
The Global Positioning System is satellite-based navigation and surveying system to determine precise position and time.
It is work in three segments.
1. Space Segment.
2. Control Segment.
3. User Segment

1. The space segment contains 24 sett elites in 12 hours, near-circular orbits at an altitude about 20000 with inclination of orbit 55°.At least 4 sett elite view on the earth surface in 3d mode.
2. Control Segment:- It consist of three-part
A. Master Control Station
B. Monitor Status
C. Upload Status.
3. User segment:- User segment contains an antenna, receiver, a data processor with software and a control/ display unit. TGPSgps receiver measure the range, phase and other data using navigation signals minimum satellites and computes 3D position, velocity and system time.

The position is in egocentric Co- ordinate's system WGS 84. Which are converted and displayed as geographic UTM, grid or any other type of coordinate from software? There are three methods of GPS measurement that are utilized by surveyors.
1. Static GPS baseline. Static GPS is used for determining accurate co-ordinates for survey points. In this method, GPS observe a known or unknown survey points for for for at least 20 minutes. Then data is processed in the office to compute co ordinate's within accuracy. It depends on the duration of the observation and satellite availability at the time of observation.
2. Real-time kinematic observation:- In this method, the receiver remains in one position over a known point. The base station and another receiver moves between positions the rover station. The position of the rover can be computed and within in a few seconds. Using a radio link.
Continuously operating reference stations. In this method, the GPS receiver is permanently installed in location as a starting point.

Uses in mine survey
1. For identification of land plot within mine boundary:- For complete this job takes the GPS reading on the ground of  Tri- junction or any other surface feature at least three points.

Digitalised and georeference the map with co-ordinate which is found by gGPSSurvey, find the no of co-ordinates from the georeferenced map. Then layout the coordinate on the ground with the help of .gps or total station.

 It is used in all type of layout work on ground like as location mine boundary, outcrop, boreholes, 
    and locate any other geological disturbance and safety point of view.
2. Day to day monitoring mining operation such as fleet management, machine management, drill blast management, safety assessment and up to date of survey plan and sections.
3. Volume measurement by GPS:- For this work an initial reading taken with the GPS before the mining work start. After the start of the excavation work take the GPS reading for periodical
measurement and according to the shape of benches of the mine, as a final measurement.

Make two surface as an initial and final from Auto cad Civil 3D software or any other volume calculation software, and calculate the volume directly between two surfaces.

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