what is topographic survey and where it is used.


what is topographic survey and where it is used.

upendra kumar

                                          WHAT IS THE TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY

Topography survey is the process of determining  the position, both in plan and elevation of the

natural and artificial features of region with conventional symbols.


Main aim of the topographic survey is prepared a map for the study of the position of natural and artificial features on the basis of plan and elevation. Such as natural features like hill, river, valley, stream, etc.
Artificial features like road, railway, canal, house, bridge, cultivation, etc

The necessary of topographic map is the design and structure of engineering project, mining project, highway work, drainage, reservoir, military etc.
 The scale of the Topographic map between 1:250000 to 1:25000. It depends on the importance of work.

The preparation of topographic map required three co-coordinates for shown position and nature of the ground of the surface.

Fieldwork contains three steps.
1. Establishing thecontrol points for horizontal and vertical.
2. Locating contours.
3. Filling details.
For the above work, all survey instrument required such as a theodolite, plane table, level instrument, chain and tape etc. Modern survey also used for topographic surveys such as total station survey, survey by GPS and DGPS, Drone survey etc.

1. Establishing the control point for horizontal and vertical measurement. It is divided into two methods. (a) Primary control (b) Secondary control. For primary horizontal control is the best method is triangulation & secondary control is the best method is triangulation and traversing both. Secondary control apply where triangulation is not possible.

For vertical control, the benchmark fixed by precise levelling and elevation of detailed features is completed by any convenient methods.

For more information about triangulation and traversing

Advantage of use of modern survey instruments like as total station and DGPS is horizontal and vertical control survey work is done together.

For more information about DGPS and total station.

2. Locating Contours:-For contouring the following method adopted
i. Direct location method.
ii. Controlling point method.
iii. Cross-section method.
iv. Squares method.

 About contouring.
See also:-
Modern survey instrument method from the total station. The readings of three coordinates taken from a single instrument, and field data processing by software.
No need large manpower for surveying and processing field data.

3. Filling details:- For filling details completed by traversing with transit and chain or tape.

Topographic m

See also:-https://www.technoupendra.com/2019/10/cross-section.html?m=1


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