UPENDRA KUMAR
10:49 AM

HOW TO CALCULATE AREA IN THE MAP

**INTRODUCTION**

AREA:-Area is defined as tract the area of land in the horizontal plane. All types of plan/map is drawn in a horizontal plane then calculate area in a horizontal plane.AREA

The units of area is hectare and square meter.

**There are generally three methods use for calculate area in the map.**

**i. Graphical method:-**

fig:-1 |

Then the area = total no of squares * square meter of one square (in the tracing paper) Shown in fig:-2

**ii. Calculation method:-**In this method area calculate by a baseline taken through the area and divided into a number of equal parts. The ordinate at each of the points of division are drawn and scaled.

fig 3 |

O1, O2, O3..............O8 are the ordinates at an equal interval.

h1,h2,h3................h7 are the mid ordinates.

d= common distance between ordinates.

L= Length of baseline.

Area of the plot. h1*d+h2*d+h3*d+.................h7*d

fig 4 |

O1, O2, O3..............O6 are the ordinates at an equal interval.

L= Length of baseline.

n= no. of divisions.

n+1=no. of ordinates.

(c) The Trapezoidal Rule:- In this method the no. of ordinates are draw at a common distance and the ordinates are considered trapezoids. The total area is divided into no. of trapezoids.

O1, O2, O3..............O6 are the ordinates at an equal interval.

d= common distance between ordinates.

O1, O2, O3..............O6 are the ordinates at an equal interval.

d= common distance between ordinates.

(d) Simpson's Rule:- In this method, the area is calculated according to the odd and even no. of ordinates.

This method used where if the division is even

Area= d/3 { (**1st ordinate+last ordinate)+4( sum of even ordinate)+2(odd ordinate)**

Area= d/3 { (

**iii Instrument method:-**In this method, the area is calculated from the use of planimeters or digital planimeters. It more accurate method and gives the result within one per cent error.

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