Upendra Kumar

There are two methods available at a reduced level.

- The collimation system or height of the instrument system
- The rise and fall system.

1. The collimation system or height of instrument system:- In this method find the elevation of the

height of instrument for every set up of the instrument and then obtain the reduced levels of points

with reference to the respective height of the instrument.

with reference to the respective height of the instrument.

The height of the instrument or line of collimation is determined by adding the back sight staff reading to

the benchmark and the reduced level of intermediate and change point is found by subtracting the

respective staff reading from the height of the instrument.

the benchmark and the reduced level of intermediate and change point is found by subtracting the

respective staff reading from the height of the instrument.

In the above figure and table

In the first setting.

Reduced level of H.I at B.M=100.000+1.255=101.255

Reduced level of point A =101.255-1.755= 99.505

Reduced level of point B =101.255-2.750= 98.505

In the second set.

Reduced level of H.I at point B=98.505+2.150=100.655

Reduced level of point C =100.655-1.950=98.750

Reduced level of point D =100.655-1.550=99.105

Arithmetical check:- Sum of B.S-Sum of F.S=Last RL-First RL

=3.405-4.300=99.105-100.000

=-0.895 =-0.895

2. The Rise And Fall System. In this method the difference of level between two points are

determined by consecutive points by comparing each point after the first with that immediately

preceding it.

determined by consecutive points by comparing each point after the first with that immediately

preceding it.

If the staff reading of the forward point is smaller than the immediately preceding staff reading then

the difference is added from the preceding point RL.

the difference is added from the preceding point RL.

If the staff reading of forward point is greater than the immediately preceding staff reading then the

the difference is subtracted from the preceding point RL.

the difference is subtracted from the preceding point RL.

The difference of point A with respect B.M= 0.75-1.25=-0.50 (FALL)

Difference of point B with respect A =1.25-2.75 =- 1.50 (FALL)

Difference of point C with respect B =2.75-1.50 =1.25 (RISE)

Difference of point D with respect C=1.50-1.75 =- 0.25 (FALL)

Then the reduced level of A = 100-0.5=99.500

Then the reduced level of B = 99.500-1.50=98.000

Then the reduced level of C = 98.000+1.25=99.250

Then the reduced level of D = 99.25-0.25=99.000

Arithmetical check:- Sum of B.S-Sum of F.S= Sum of rise-Sum of fall=Last RL-First RL

0.75- 1.75= 1.25-2.25=99.000-100.00

= -1.00 =-1.00= -1.000

SEE ALSO:-https://www.technoupendra.com/

https://www.technoupendra.com/2019/10/what-is-contour-and-their-use.html