NAME='Robots'/> MY FORWARD WORK: WHY USED CORRECTION FOR CURVATURE AND REFRACTION IN LEVELING

WHY USED CORRECTION FOR CURVATURE AND REFRACTION IN LEVELING









Levelline:- A level line is a line on the surface . It is normal to the plumb line at all
points.


    Line of collimation:- The line joining the intersection of the cross-hairs to
    the optical -hairs to the optical center of the object glass and its continuation.
    It is called the line of sight.
      Curvature Correction:- In the long sighting the horizontal line is not level line due to the
      level line being curved and parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of the earth.But the
      line of sight is horizontal . In the long sight affects the staff reading due to curvature of
      the earth, the leveling staff appear lower than real .The vertical distance between line of
      collimation to the level line is called curvature correction. 


      In the above picture 


      PO= D=Horizontal distance in KM.
      OQ= Cc =Curvature correction.
      QC=PC= R=Radius of earth
      QQ’= Diametre =12742 km


      InPOC
                 ⇒OC²=PC²+PO²
                 ⇒(R+Cc)²=R²+D²
                 ⇒ R²+Cc²+2RCc=R²+D²
                 ⇒ Cc2R =D²  (NoteCc² is neglected it is very small comparison to diameter of the
      earth)
                  ⇒  Cc = D²÷2R
                  ⇒  D²×1000÷12742
                  ⇒ 0.0785D² (negative)

       True staff reading= Observed staff reading-Curvature Correction
          
      2. Refraction correction :- When the long sites are taken the line of sight refracted towards
      the surface of earth in curved path. The radius of earth is seven times that of the earth in
      normal atmospheric condition.Due this effect object appears higher than really .
               ⇒ Cr =1/7× D²/2R
               ⇒ Cr=1/7×  0.0785D² m (positive)
                ⇒ 0.0112D² m  (positive)

           True staff reading = observed staff reading- Refraction correction
              


      3. Combined correction= Curvature correction+refraction correction
         
                                                 - 0.0785D²+ 0.0112D²
                                                    
                                                     - 0.0673 D²



           True staff reading observed staff reading- Combined correction
         
               


                 




                 








      SEE ALSO :- https://www.technoupendra.com/2020/04/techno-upendra-what-is-method-of.html
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