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UPENDRA KUMAR
June 20, 2020

UPENDRA KUMAR

** **__WHAT IS THE SURVEYING AND LEVELING__

**SURVEYING:- **Surveying is the art for determining the relative position of different objects on the earth's surface by measuring a horizontal distance between them. The aim of surveying is to prepare a map on a suitable scale.

**LEVELING:-**Leveling is the art of determining the relative vertical distance of different points.

__CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING__

**PLANE SURVEYING**

**GEODETIC SURVEYING**

__ __**PLANE SURVEYING**

In the plane surveying, the curvature of the earth is not taken into consideration. The plane surveying used in a small area, so the surface of the earth considered as the plane. The line joining between two points considered straight. The triangle formed by any three points considered as a plane triangle. The angle measured between the lines of the triangle assumed the plane angle. The plane surveying is used were to survey area less than 2.5 km square.

__ GEODETIC SURVEYING__

In the geodetic surveying, the curvature of the earth is taken into consideration. The geodetic surveying used in a large area, so the surface of the earth considered spherical. The line joining between two points considered curved. The triangle formed by any three points considered a spherical triangle. The angle measured between the lines of the triangle assumed the spherical angle. The geodetic surveying is used were to survey area less than 2.5 km square.

** **__There are two methods of surveying:__

A. Triangulation surveying. B. Traverse surveying.

**Types of surveying based on the instrument.**

i.Chain Surveying

ii.Compass Surveying

iii.Plane Table Surveying

iv.Theodolite Surveying

iv.Tacheometric Surveying

v.Photographic surveying.

The Theodolite and Tacheometric surveying are also used in leveling purposes.

**Types of surveying based on modern instruments.**

i. DGPS Surveying

ii. Total Station Surveying

iii. 3D Scanning Surveying

iv. Drone Surveying

The modern instruments are used in surveying and leveling purposes.

** Uses Of Surveying And Levelling In Engineering **

The surveying and leveling are used to prepare a detailed drawing of projects involving roads, railway, etc.

Types of Branch of Engineering where The Use of Surveying

1. Civil Engineering

2. Mining Engineering

3.Marine Engineering

4.Astronomical Engineering.

The following method of survey used in engineering.

a. Topographic surveying:- To determine the natural features of the country.

b. Cadastral Surveying:- To determine the boundary and detail of the field, estate, and houses.

c.Construction and layout Surveying:- It is used in construction, quantity, and layout work of engineering projects.

d. Archeological surveying

A. Triangulation surveying. B. Traverse surveying.

i.Chain Surveying

ii.Compass Surveying

iii.Plane Table Surveying

iv.Theodolite Surveying

iv.Tacheometric Surveying

v.Photographic surveying.

The Theodolite and Tacheometric surveying are also used in leveling purposes.

ii. Total Station Surveying

iii. 3D Scanning Surveying

iv. Drone Surveying

3D scanner |

The modern instruments are used in surveying and leveling purposes.

Types of Branch of Engineering where The Use of Surveying

1. Civil Engineering

2. Mining Engineering

3.Marine Engineering

4.Astronomical Engineering.

Topographic Map |

The following method of survey used in engineering.

a. Topographic surveying:- To determine the natural features of the country.

b. Cadastral Surveying:- To determine the boundary and detail of the field, estate, and houses.

c.Construction and layout Surveying:- It is used in construction, quantity, and layout work of engineering projects.

d. Archeological surveying

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