# HOW TO CREATE BEST MAP

Upendra Kumar

A map is a type of illustration which shows the relationship between objects, region, and theme in the space.

A map is the two type

i. Small scale map:- When 1cm of the map represents a large distance is called a small scale map.
Example:- If the map shows scale.1cm =100mt then Scale= 1:10000 and it is small scale map.

ii. Large scale map:-  When 1cm of the map represents a small distance is called a large scale map.
1cm=1mt then the scale=1:100 and it is a large scale map.
 Large Scale Map

Generally, a map that has RF is less than 1/500 is called a large-scale map. That map has RF more than 1/500 is called a small scale map.

Type Of Survey Data Used In Prepared A Map

1. Distance

2. Distance, Angle, and Bearing

3. Co-ordinates

1. Distance:- In the chain survey and plane table survey used only distance is for drawn a map. This type of survey data is used in the cadastral survey map,  locate a detailed survey map, and construction engineering map.

2.Distance, Angle, and Bearing:- If the survey data is collected from the compass survey, the Theodolite survey then draws a map for according to this type of survey required distance, angle, and bearing.

3. Co-ordinates:-  If the survey data is collected from Total station, DGPS survey, Drone survey, 3d scanners survey, Theodolite traversing, leveling, etc then draws a map for according to this type of survey required co-ordinates method for prepare a map.

Important Object For Draw A Map

A. A borderline about 20 mm from the edge of the sheet is drawn.
B. The heading of the written on the top.
C. A North line should mark on the right-hand side of the top.
D. Conventional symbol right on the map
E. A scale is drawn and kept in a suitable position of the map.
F. Grids lines also are drawn at a suitable interval on the map.
G. The title box should be prepared on the right bottom side of the sheet.

General information writes into the title box.

i. Name of the owner of the place for which map is prepared.
ii. Name of the place should be also mentioned.
iii.Name of their purpose should be also mentioned.
iv.Name and sign of the drawing maker and surveyor and countersigned of the upper-level officer should be also mentioned.
v. A certificate for the correctness of the map is also mentioned.

There are two ways of drawing a map

1. Manual Drawing:- The types of map which is drawn manually is called a manual drawing map. In the manual drawing is the distance, coordinates are drawn by use of a scale and angle, the bearing is drawn by the protector. There are two types of requirements
that is required in the manual drawing.

(a) Drawing Instrument:-
I. A drawing table made of good timber and convenient size is 2.4 m x 1.2 m

II.Drawing board:-The drawing board is a large flat board on which paper may be spread for designers to work on. The convenient size 2.4mx1.2m.
III. Tee square:- A tee square is an instrument it is used for drawing a horizontal line on the drawing board.

IV. A parallel ruler:-  It is used for drawing parallel lines and it is required various lengths like 300,450,600 mm.
V. Set squares:- A set square or triangle is an object used in engineering and technical drawing, with the aim of providing a straightedge at a right angle or another particular planar angle to a baseline. Only one pair of 45° and 60° is required.

VI.  A Protector:- A protractor is a measuring instrument, typically made of transparent plastic or metal, for measuring angles.

VII. A Steel straight edge:- The Straight edge is used for drawing longs line and it has a length  2m long.
VIII. Beam Compass:- Beam compass is a drawing compass consisting of a horizontal rod or beam connected by sliding sockets to two vertical legs, used for drawing large circles.

 Beam compass

IX. A Set of the french curve:-The french curve is required for drawing irregular and curved figures.
 French Curve
X. A rotor: -A rotor that is very useful for drawing very small circles.

X. A set of scales:- A set of scale include long and offsets scale.

XI. Proportional Compass:-The Proportional Compass or Sector was an analog computational device allowing to perform easily diverse arithmetic and geometric operations. They appeared in renaissance Europe starting around the 15th century, though their origins go into ancient times. These are generally composed of two arms with scales on them connected by a hinge. A sector was made of brass, bone, or wood. Most are of the order of six inches long when folded. It is used for enlarging and reducing plans.
XII. An instrument box of good quality.

(b) Drawing Material:-

I. Paper:-polyester film, Tracing paper, and cloth paper are used in drawing. The size of the paper AO, A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5 are used in drawing.
II.Drawing Pins or Clamps:-They are necessary for attaching the paper to the drawing board.
III. Weights:-They are made of lead. They are necessary for holding down the drawing paper.
IV. Pencils, Rubber, Ink, clours, Brushes:-All these of superior quality are used in drawing.

Types of the method in Traverse survey plotting

1. PLOTTING BY PARALLEL MERIDIANS THROUGH EACH STATION:- In this method the
the bearing of the lines drawn by the parallel method and the length of the lines drawn on suitable
scale.

 LINE BEARING LENGTH AB 140°12’ 76.80 BC 36°24’ 195.60 CD 338°24’ 37.20 DA 228°45’ 201.96

In the above table, the bearing and length of the lines are given. For drawing the traverse first draw a north-south line. Keep the protector on the line like 0 ° and 180° of the protector coincide with the north-south line of paper. From point A read the angle 140°12’ in the clockwise direction. Point the reading with a pencil and draw the line AB 76.80 on a suitable scale. Now draw the north-south line at point B with the  SET SQUARE  by the parallel method and draw a line BC mention upper method. Complete traverse draw CD and DA by the mentioned upper method.

2.PLOTTING BY INCLUDED ANGLE METHOD:-  NGLE METHOD:-

In this method, the north-south line is drawn on point A, and the bearing and length of AB drawn with the help of protector and scale. At a point, B keeps the protector and marks the point of the included angle between AB and BC and the length of BC is drawn on a suitable scale. Repeat the process and draw the line CD and DA.
1. BY RECTANGULAR COORDINATES METHOD

 POINT TOTAL LATITUDE TOTAL DEPARTURE A 0 0 B -59.00 49.16 C 98.43 165.23 D 133.01 151.54 A 0 0

In the above table, coordinates are given of the points ABCD.In the figure, X and Y axis are two lines where X represents departure and Y represents latitude and origin point A. The coordinates of the origin point 0,0.

For drawing point B whose coordinates are (-59.00,49.16). The latitude of point B is -59.00 then it shows the latitude is the negative direction or southing direction and departure is positive or east direction. Place the single set square coinciding the line AYY, and point the length 59.00 in a negative direction. Keep the other set square right angle to AYY’ and measure the length 49.16 mt in the X direction on a suitable scale point the B.Join the line AB. Repeat the process and mark points C and D. Join the line BC, CD, and DA and complete the traverse. Gridlines are also used in drawing maps.

The rectangular coordinates method is the most accurate method of drawing

The failure to close a traverse is called a closing error. If the closing error is large, it indicates that an error has been made in chaining, and the line required to be reassured. If it is small, it may be eliminated, and the traverse is made to close by slightly modifying the shape of the polygon. The closing error is distributed among the station of the traverse by shifting each station by an amount proportional to the total distance of that station from the starting point of the traverse, and parallel to the direction of closing error.

2. Digital Drawing Map:- Digital drawing map is an electronic map. which operation is based on a combination of graphic elements assigned to it in the form of electronic information. It is prepared with the use of computers and software. It draws enter data in the computer or automatic drawing in the form of point, line, and polygon.
Advantage of Digital Drawing Map:-In the digital maps can include any area, we can freely zoom them in and out. Digital maps can be remotely updated at a much lower cost and labor. The digital map can store a lot of different information in the form of digital layers.

 DIGITAL MAP