# Optimization with randomized search heuristics - the (A)NFL theorem, realistic scenarios, and difficult functions

@article{Droste2002OptimizationWR, title={Optimization with randomized search heuristics - the (A)NFL theorem, realistic scenarios, and difficult functions}, author={Stefan Droste and T. Jansen and Ingo Wegener}, journal={Theor. Comput. Sci.}, year={2002}, volume={287}, pages={131-144} }

The No Free Lunch (NFL) theorem due to Wolpert and Macready (IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 1(1) (1997) 67) has led to controversial discussions on the usefulness of randomized search heuristics, in particular, evolutionary algorithms. Here a short and simple proof of the NFL theorem is given to show its elementary character. Moreover, the proof method leads to a generalization of the NFL theorem. Afterwards, realistic complexity theoretical-based scenarios for black box optimization are presented… Expand

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#### 128 Citations

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