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How do survey of the land with GPS



Land surveying is the process of determining the features and boundaries of a property. 

It is also used for
  • Location of the points on the earth's surface.
  • The development of the land.
  • To determine encroachment.
  • Engineering, construction, archaeological, and mining projects, etc.
  • For government needs.
And any other requirements for the government and the public.

There are many types of instruments and methods is used in land surveying, But after came GPS in surveying then GPS survey is more accurate than hand measurement surveying methods. 

The advantage of land surveying with GPS.



  • The fundamental of land surveying is the exact position of the point on the earth's surface. It is possible only surveying with GPS.
  • In the GPS method, the coordinates give very precise than other methods of survey due to human, instrumental and natural error.
  • GPS reading gives three coordinates which are important for land development and site planning work.
  • GPS survey is not completely replaced of theodolite, total station, and other survey equipment due to non-availability of satellite signals near tree and building.

                                   Methods of the land survey with GPS

GPS or GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM is a satellite-based navigation system. The no. of satellite communicates with  GPS data receiver. The GPS receiver receives the data from the satellite in the form of the longitude, latitude, and height of the GPS receiver.

HOW DOES GPS WORK WITH SATELLITE

   
          There are many methods available for surveying land with GPS.

1.STATIC GPS BASELINE METHOD:- This method is used to measure the baseline according to surveying done by triangulation. In this method, a minimum of three known and unknown points marked on the ground with the flag or peg. Set the two GPS receivers over the two marked points. Start the GPS to communicate the satellite. The observation took at least 20 minutes from both GPS receivers, then receivers collect data simultaneously.  The time of observation depends on the distance of the baseline and requirements of accuracy. 



shift the one GPS receiver and set on the other base point and took the observation. The process continues until requirements are completed. Process the data to determining the difference in longitude, latitude, and height in the software.
 
         Advantage of statics GPS recevers
  • Due to a long period of data collection give more accurate data.
  • The data collections are not affected due to the visibility of each other baseline points.

2.REAL-TIME KINEMATIC OBSERVATION:- In this method, the receiver remains in one position over a known point. The base station and another receiver move between positions of the rover station. The position of the rover can be computed and within a few seconds. Using a radio link.
Continuously operating reference stations. In this method, the GPS receiver is permanently installed in the location as a starting point. 





In the above picture, The GPS receiver set on the base station on the trijunction point, and another rover receiver take the data on the boundary of the plot. 

3.Continuously Operating Reference Station(CORS).:- In this type of survey, the GPS receiver is permanently fixed on the starting point of location or government department. The survey data is collected with a combination of CORS.

4.ABSOLUTE METHOD OF OBSERVATION:- In this method, the single Gps receiver is fitted over the station, and data is collected on the basis of resection. The accuracy of data depends on the accuracy of time and position of the receiver. In this method minimum of four GPS is required during observation.











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